Chemguide: Support for CIE A level Chemistry

Section 23 Menu

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Section 23: Chemical energetics

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Section 23.1: Lattice energy and Born-Haber cycles

Learning outcomes 23.1.1 and 23.1.5

Learning outcome 23.1.2

Learning outcomes 23.1.3 and 23.1.4

Section 23.2: Enthalpies of solution and hydration

Learning outcomes 23.2.1, 23.2.2, 23.2.3 and 23.2.4

Section 23.3: Entropy change, ΔS

Learning outcome 23.3.1

Learning outcome 23.3.2

Learning outcome 23.3.3

Section 23.4: Gibbs free energy change, ΔG

Learning outcomes 23.4.1 and 23.4.2

Learning outcomes 23.4.3 and 23.4.4

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