Chemguide: Support for CIE A level Chemistry
Learning outcome 19.1(b)
This statement is about the reactions of carboxylic acids to produce salts, esters and acyl chlorides.
Before you go on, you should find and read the statement in your copy of the syllabus.
Statement 19.1(b)(i): Producing salts
You will find most of what you need on the page carboxylic acids as acids.
Statement 19.1(b)(ii): Producing esters
You should read the page about esterification of carboxylic acids.
Take your time over the introductory part of the page, and be sure that you understand how esters are named and drawn.
You will need some practical detail.
Statement 19.1(b)(iii): Producing alcohols
Carboxylic acids are reduced to alcohols with LiAlH4. You will find everything you need on the page about the reduction of carboxylic acids.
The equation involving [H] is fine.
Statement 19.1(b)(iv): Producing acyl chlorides
This statement is in bold type in the syllabus, and so you won't need it until the second half of your course.
You will find this on the page about converting carboxylic acids to acyl chlorides.
CIE's preferred method is using sulphur dichloride oxide (thionyl chloride) because the other products are gases, and so purification is easier. In case they come up in an exam question, you should be aware that either of the phosphorus chlorides can be used as well, but I wouldn't bother to spend much time learning the equations for these reactions.
© Jim Clark 2011 (last modified June 2014)